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Common Injuries, Causes Symptoms and Treatment

November 17, 2011 in Uncategorized

 

Injuries are a huge setback for anyone, sports specific or just the regular fitness chaser. Here are some of the  common injuries that are experienced and  probable causes. So to avoid time off from training and continued progression on your path to reach your goals here are a few Causes and Preventions, Symptons and  Treatments to help you YOU STAY FIT AND INJURY FREE!!!

1..What a stress fractures is, where found, causes, symptoms and methods of treatment.

A stress fracture is an overuse injury. Because of repeated trauma, the bone can fail to absorb the shock that is being put upon it and become weakened. Most often it is seen in the lower leg, the shin bone (tibia), or foot.. Eventually, the fatigued muscle transfers the overload of stress to the bone causing a tiny crack called a stress fracture.

Stress fractures often are the result of increasing the amount or intensity of an activity too rapidly. Athletes are at risk the most, because they have repeated footfalls on hard surfaces. Tennis players, basketball players, jumpers, and gymnasts are typically at risk. A stress fracture of the metatarsal or long bones of the foot is a called a march fracture .This often happens to footballers.

Where do stress fractures occur?

Most stress fractures occur in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and the foot. More than 50 percent of all stress fractures occur in the lower leg.

Symptoms

  • It becomes worse with any exercise.
  • It is painful to touch over small area about one inch.  Extreme tenderness
  • The injury is usually of quite sudden onset.

Causes

  • Overuse  or novice athletes
  • Accumulated muscular fatigue which may reduce the muscles ability to reduce shock.
  • Running on hard surfaces
  • Poor shock absorbent footwear
  • Poor running technique
  • Fibula damage often due to bow leg forcing weight onto outer foot.

Treatment

  • Injury will heal itself within 3 months of complete rest.
  • Rest from running for a minimum of 4 weeks
  • Avoid running on hard surfaces
  • Correct footwear
  • Correct bow leg or pigeon toes if possible using orthotic
  • Ultrasound treatment after initial two weeks of rest
  • Faradism and massage will help to maintain the leg muscle and speed the healing process
  • Magnetic Field Therapy is reported to speed the healing process by up to 50%

2.      What shin splint is, where found, causes, symptoms and methods of treatment

A shin splint is the most common cause of exercise-induced leg pain encountered by athletes of all levels. This condition can also affect non-athletic people who are on their feet all day. In the past the term shin splint has been used to describe all forms of pain in the lower leg. A shin splint is a very specific problem. It is essentially an inflammatory reaction involving the deep tissues of the lower leg and may involve tendons & muscles.

The inflammatory reaction occurs at the point where the deep tissues insert into the inside (medial) or front (anterior) aspect of the leg bone (tibia), tenderness is usually present between 3-16 cm above the foot.

Causes

  • Over training.

     ●   A primary culprit causing shin splints is a sudden increase in distance or intensity of a workout schedule. This increase in muscle work can be associated with inflammation of the lower leg muscles, those muscles used in lifting the foot (the motion during which the foot pivots toward the tibia). Such a situation can be aggravated by a tendency to pronate the foot (roll it excessively inward onto the arch).

  •  Tight calve muscles.
  • A young novice runner training for long periods on hard roads and in poor physical condition.
  • Training on hard surfaces such as concrete.
  • Improper shoes, inadequate shock absorption.
  • Excessive rotation of the hip.

Symptoms

  • Pain along the inner or outer tibia or between tibia and fibula
  • Worse after exercise and better after rest.
  • Small area tender to pressure about 2 or 3 inches along the bone

Treatment

  • Decrease training immediately, build up after rest period of at least 3 weeks.  If problem recur a longer period of rest may be necessary.
  • The use of crutches may be necessary to ensure there is non-weight bearing
  • Review stretching exercises may be necessary.
  • Light swimming may help to maintain fitness.
  • Do not train downhill, this can aggravate the condition.
  • Purchase shin splint insoles.
  • RICE
  • Ultrasound and massage after 2 or 3 days of rest
  • Electro therapy can be of great value if the inflammation has left residual lesions

 3.         What Achilles tendititis is, where found, causes, symptoms, and methods of treatment

Achilles tendonitis is inflammation, irritation, and swelling of the Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendon is the tendon that connects the muscles of the calf to the heel.

Causes

  • Inflammation of the tendon can be caused by overuse, trauma, arthritis, and infection. The most common cause is overuse.
  • Tendonitis is common walkers, runners, and athletes who do a lot of jumping and running.
  • Minor tear of Achilles tendon
  • Exessive ankle pronation
  • Incorrect training shoes

Symptoms

  • Severe pain in the heel/tendon when walking or running
  • May hurt when rising on tiptoe
  • Swelling
  • Thickening of tendon may develop into a lump
  • Warm tendon
  • May feel better after a little exercise but worse after over exercise
  • When the afflected foor touches the ground there is a feeling of discomfort

Treatment

  • Rice
  • Prescription of stretching exercises
  • Ultrasound and massage
  • A hell pad will allow tendon to relax and allow the injury to heal
  • No training until completely healed or the scar tissue will thicken on the tendon.

  4.         What posterior tibial strain is, where found, causes, symptoms and methods of treatment

Posterior Tibial Tendonitis is a strain placed on the posterior tibial tendon.  The posterior tibial tendon runs along the inside of the ankle and the foot.  When there is post-tibial tendon disjunction, the tendon does not function to hold up the arch, resulting in flat feet.  This can lead to heel pain, arch pain, plantar fasciitis and/or heel spurs.  With post-tibial Tendonitis, pain will be more severe upon weight bearing, especially while walking or running.

Cause:

  • Most injury is caused from strain on the Posterior Tibial Tendon from over exercising from sport activity.
  • Injury form impact or fall.
  • Walking incorrectly on the inside of the foot.
  • Diseases such as arthritis.
  • Points in ballet
  • Hill running or long distant running

Symptoms

  • Pain and swelling on the inside of the ankle
  • Loss of the arch and the development of a flatfoot
  • Gradually developing  on the outer side of the ankle or foot
  • Weakness and an inability to stand on the toes
  • Tenderness over the midfoot, especially when under stress during activity

Treatment

  • RICE
  • Arch support for flat foot will relieve pain
  • Foot exercises like picking up pencils with toes
  • Ultrasound and massage to tendon and muscle
  • Non weight bearing lower leg exercises

5.         Where is the Achilles tendon found?

The Achilles tendon is the tendonous extension of three muscles in the lower leg: gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris.  The tendon passes behind the ankle. It is about 15 cm long, and begins near the middle of the calf, but receives fleshy fibers on its anterior surface, almost to its lower end. Gradually becoming contracted below, it is inserted into the middle part of the posterior surface of the calcaneus.The Achilles tendon connects the heel bone to the calf muscle of the leg.

 

 

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